That’s quite a statement! If Paul had intended to refer to people who had initially been enemies but who have now become beloved (and not enemies any longer), he would not have used the correlative conjunction “on the one hand” and “but on the other hand”, but rather “formerly” and “but now.” Paul’s writing often uses contrasting elements to highlight the differences between the state of affairs between the pre-conversion and post-conversion state. For b we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but c the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. Morris further writes that Paul is seen to make more appeal to the covenant made between God and Abraham as well as the one made to his descendants throughout their lifetimes. This relationship is destined to be illustrated and justified in the eventual restoration (see Rom 11 verses 12, 15, 26). Using Bloesch’s words, God’s rejection of the nation of Israel was only provisional implying that the entire nation of Israel would be saved. [9] ibid p.729-730. It also points out the entire nation of Israel will one day be restored. The gifts and the calling to the nation of Israel are irrevocable based on the fact that God does not backtrack on his promises. At that specific time, the people of Israel living in those days will accept the Messiah. Romans 8 summarizes and drives home to the human heart the implications of our salvation presented in Romans 1–7 and prepares the way for Paul to discuss the relationship between Jews and Gentiles in God’s plan (Romans 9–11, 15) and the practical outworking of life in the Spirit (Romans 12–14). Browse other questions tagged exegesis romans sovereignty or ask your own question. or does it mean at a certain point in future, all physical Israel are elect and will be grafted back into the tree in which we now stand? Despite verse 28 being asyndeton and lacking a proper connection to with the aforementioned content, there is a forged implication used to supplement the subjects touched in verse 28. It seems to be referring to Jacob in verse 26, which then refers back to “all Israel” as evident in verse 26. Here, Paul implies that the by rejecting the gospel, the nation of Israel was working towards the benefit of the Gentiles who ended up receiving salvation – much to their advantage. This is God's great mystery that He has been carrying out all along despite Israel and Gentile's disobedience. In the first clause, Paul reiterates the issue of enmity by writing that the people are enemies for the sake of “you.”  The believing portion of the gentile community is described using the second-person pronoun. In Isaiah 59:20-21, Paul quoted, "'The Redeemer will come to Jerusalem,' says the Lord, 'To buy back those in Israel who have turned from their sins. What does he mean, exactly? A. Keith Simons. The problem however is that he loves the the Jews so much, that his love for them is in competition with the gospel, and contradicts what Yeshua himself taught about salvation. He concludes that Israel’s “no” to Yeshua (Jesus) is actually a “hidden participation in the obedience of Israel’s Messiah”[1]. (Sam Harris). The term “fathers” refers to the main patriarchs of Israel and include Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. In Rom 11:28, Paul use the correlative conjunctions to illustrate the existence of simultaneous state between the pre-converted past and the post-converted present state of affairs. (I do believer there is only one people of God). 2. Yet in verse 28 Paul asserts that this group of individuals are seen as enemies from God from the Gospel’s standpoint. “These people were initially unreceptive of the gospel but through magnificent exhibition of God’s mercy, they were able to be beloved.”[4], The argument is that he first clause of 11:28 refers to the elect in their unsaved state, while the second describes their status after receiving God’s salvation. The use of the preposition kata is used to designate the accepted way in which judgement will be accorded. Romans 11:28 disqualifies interpretation of the Church as Israel. THE CONTEXT As we look at verses 5-15, we must remember how they relate to the rest of the chapter. Romans 11:26 The Mystery of Israel's Salvation. This refers to national Israel-not every single individual Jew but the majority at a certain point in history. This is because the interpretation in this view sufficiently envisages a situation whereby the two clauses of Romans 11:28 can be said to be simultaneously true in the present state concerning the “all Israel.” In the same scenario, the unbelieving Israelite nation is perceived on the one hand as the enemy of God, while on the other, still very much beloved. This is specifically due to the fact that the gospel and those who believe in it are. [10], The analysis of Romans 11:28 makes it clear that the dual status of “all Israel” is well interpreted using the view that “all Israel” is the ethnic state of Israel. Married to Kate (since 2007), raising their son Asaf in Israel. Yet in verse 28 Paul asserts that this group of individuals are seen as enemies from God from the Gospel’s standpoint. Romans 11:29, KJV: "For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance." It offers a definition of a rule upon which God’s have managed to establish a relationship with the nation of Israel. Despite failing to exclusively define the notion of the “gift” in this context, there is the likelihood that the usage of the word is meant to provide a summary of the good things and privileges accorded to the nation of Israel as indicated in Romans  9:4–5. This view is based on the idea that when some Jews answered Pilate “All the people answered, “His blood is on us and on our children!” (Matthew 27:25), God considered Jesus’ blood to covered them and their sins. However, from God’s point of view, they are much loved because for the sake of their forefathers. The majority of the Israelites do not demonstrate a liking for the Messiah, as described in verse 11 with the use of the terms “their transgression” and in verse 15 as “their rejection.” In the first clause of Romans 11:28 Paul offers a distinct description of the hardened state of the nation of Israel by denoting the nation as being the enemies of God. The first half of verse 28a, 28b, and 29 provide ample support for this statement. If this pericope is read aloud, most hearers will not know to whom “they” and “their” refer to in Romans 11:29-32. The gifts and the calling to the nation of Israel are irrevocable based on the fact that God does not backtrack on his promises. ... Got Questions? “The same is used to arrive at a definition of the rule of determining God’s relationship with the Israelites.” The term “according to election” should thus be interpreted to denote the notion that even though these people are recognized as enemies at least in regards to the gospel, they are still beloved from the perspective of God’s irrevocable choice. There is an obvious difficulty with Romans 11:28 and the remnant view, based on these two clauses. Eitan holds to a B.A. Paul asserts that “all Israel” are viewed as enemies from the gospel point of view. 11:26, then there can be no doubt that "all Israel" means ethnic Israel (elect). Supporters of this view will insist that verse 28 offers a description of individuals whom God regarded as enemies but have now received salvation and God’s love. Simply put, from the gospel’s point of view, “they” refers to the ethnic Jews while “you” refers to the Gentiles. Verse 28b Paul refers to the subject or the people by describing them as “enemies for the sake of you.” Due to the fact that Paul continuously uses the pronoun “you” to reference the Gentiles, the noun “enemies” must be referring to the ethnic Jews. It is thus difficult to use Romans 11:28 to denote individuals who were enemies in the pre-conversion past but are now beloved in the post-conversion present. Rom 11:28 has a particular importance because it bears directly to the identity of “all Israel”. [5] For instance: Rom 11:30, Gal 1:2,  Eph 5:8, Col 1:21-22, 3:7-8, Philemon 10-11. According to Kinzer, although Israel has rejected Yeshua, He “continues to live among them—though in a hidden, obscure fashion”. Paul refers to the subject or the people by describing them as “enemies for the sake of you.” Due to the fact that Paul continuously uses the pronoun “you” to reference the Gentiles, the noun “enemies” must be referring to the ethnic Jews. However, the term “calling” is clearly defined as the process of God’s choosing to elect the beloved Jews. The “ethnic Israel” view offers a perfectly fitting interpretation of the dual status of “all Israel” in sharp contrast to those offered by other views. For instance in Romans 7:5-6, he utilises the active indicative pronoun “we were” and combined with “but now.” He also demonstrates the same element of establishing temporal contrast by using the combination of “at that time” and “but now” as evident in Galatians 4:8-9: “However, at that time …. In verse 28b, Paul asserts this by writing that the gifts and calling made by God cannot revoked. in Theological Studies (Liberty University. The second prepositional phrase used Paul to emphasize this point is illustrated though the use of the clause “because of the fathers”… The term “fathers” refers to the main patriarchs of Israel and include Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Romans 11:26 ESV / 6 helpful votes Helpful Not Helpful. There is an obvious difficulty with Romans 11:28 and the remnant view, based on these two clauses. Romans chapter 14 is a complex segment of scripture that frequently is both misunderstood and abused. Romans 11:28-29 God does choose to bless corporate entities, but not everyone who professes membership in a blessed group will fully enjoy the blessing. 24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more shall these who are the natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree? A Bible Study in EasyEnglish (2800 word vocabulary) on the Book of Romans. The use of “they” in verse 27 is not used in its original context and thus need to be supplemented using “them” in the same verse. In the first clause of Romans 11:28 Paul offers a distinct description of the hardened state of the nation of Israel by denoting the nation as being the enemies of God. Does it mean "all elect within physical Israel"? Verse 28a In the present context, “all Israel” still equates to God’s enemies although that rejection has resulted in many Gentiles finding salvation. Proponents of this view argue that the salvation of the Israelites ethnic nation has its root in God’s faithfulness to fulfill his covenantal promises made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Nevertheless, by virtue of being elected and in accordance with their connection with the patriarchs, they are beloved. The four views are that “all Israel” means: This notion indicates that the hardened stance of the Israelite nation is partial and thus a remnant portion among the Jews will continue to face God’s salvation until the end of the modern times. [A new version of this page can be found here] . Morris further writes that Paul is seen to make more appeal to the covenant made between God and Abraham as well as the one made to his descendants throughout their lifetimes.[6]. Romans 2:5; Romans 2:8, Romans 3:5, Romans 4:15, Romans 5:9, Romans 9:22, and besides, ch. Or does the nation of Israel have a hopeful future concerning God’s liberating plan of redemption? Romans 5:1-11 explains the implications of justification by faith: peace with God, access to grace, joy, the hope of the glory of God, joy in suffering, reconciliation with God and joy in God. 2, 6, 8, The dual status in the first half of verse 28 is reiterated by the statement that the Jewish non-believers that comprise the nation of Israel are perceived as enemies as per the gospel and also for the Gentiles’ sake. [5] He is dealing specifically with ethnic Israel, and explaining how the word of God concerning them has not failed even though they have not all believed. In verse 28b, Paul asserts this by writing that the gifts and calling made by God cannot revoked. The other reason that presents problems for “the church” view is when analysing verse 28 is that the two clauses used in the whole verse are difficult to use when describing the church. And who are “they”? Judaism’s rejection of Jesus is based on Judaism’s rejection of Moses, and the prophets. Who is included in “All Israel”? That’s quite a statement! Despite the majority of Israel currently still being in rebellion, God will not forget His people, and will pour His Spirit on Israel at a specific point in time, in agreement with the covenantal promises. 23 And they also, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in; for God is able to graft them in again. Notes However, from God’s point of view, they are much loved because for the sake of their forefathers. The outcome of religious traditions that I’ve encountered so far is mainly characterized by pride, legalism and self-justification – nothing that can “save” you. I kinda like Iconoclast's take on it. It also has a special reference to the covenant promises that God made to them. And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it is written, “The Deliverer will come from Zion, he will banish ungodliness from Jacob”; Psalm 27:1 ESV / 6 helpful votes Helpful Not Helpful. [3] Bruce K. Waltke, “Kingdom Promises as Spiritual” (Westchester, Ill.: Crossway, 1988) p.274 Romans 11:29. 11:26) and their sins taken away. My Life and the Gospel Revolution – Anastasia, The Psychological Power of Tradition over the Jewish people (in rejecting Christ). In this sense, 11:26 would be interpreted as ""And in this way all Israel , So some understand the passage to mean,,,,so after this manner[jew+gentile as one new man In Christ] all Israel ie,[ The Israel of God} consisting of elect physicsl Israelites, as well as elect gentiles grafted inth the root promises,,,,,,,shall be saved. 11:25 is a mystery that is related to a covenant (Rom. Even though the present nation of Israel is hardened, God still sees them as the elect and beloved nation. 26 And so all Israel will be 1 saved, as it is written: d "The Deliverer will come out of Zion, And He will turn away ungodliness from Jacob; Cross References Psalms 14:7 Oh, that the salvation of Israel would come out of Zion! [8] Put simply, while Israel rejected God’s Messiah, God has not backtracked on the promises made to the fathers, and equally, those promises have not been annulled by Israel’s lack of faith. Eitan Bar The importance of repentance. “The chosen remnant” view is that “all Israel” refers to the believing remnant of the Jewish community. When Rabbi Akiva coined the phrase: “Tradition is a fence to the Torah”, it’s doubtful he imagined how the rabbinic tradition of the so-called... Because the best way to bless Israel is with Yeshua (Jesus)! It is thus difficult to use Romans 11:28 to denote individuals who were enemies in the pre-conversion past but are now beloved in the post-conversion present. Paul writes that non-believing Israel are God’s enemies yet that they are also beloved at the same time. The Puritan Board is a forum dedicated to the discussion of Christian theology in a Confessionally Reformed context. Question on Romans 11; Jews, Gentiles, & Branches. It is thus difficult to use Romans 11:28 to denote individuals who were enemies in the pre-conversion past but are now beloved in the post-conversion present. First, Paul writes that the nation of Israel are beloved by God “according to election”. The table below shows the parallel comparison of the two clauses in relation to verse 28: The two clauses above reveal two distinct revelations; individuals categorized as “all Israel” as defined in verse 26 are treated as enemies of God while on the other hand, God still show some love for them. The argument is that he first clause of 11:28 refers to the elect in their unsaved state, while the second describes their status after receiving God’s salvation. Elsewhere (see e.g. [4] Karl Barth, “The Epistle to the Romans” (Oxford University Press, 1968) p.418-419 He also holds to an M.A. Romans 11:29, ESV: "For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable." AWAKEN ISRAEL TO THE HOPE OF MESSIAH: Help with our end of year need! Supporters of this view will insist that verse 28 offers a description of individuals whom God regarded as enemies but have now received salvation and God’s love. and an MDiv Equiv. Instead, God will pour His Spirit on Israel at a specific point in time, in agreement with the covenantal promises. In broad terms, as 9:30–10:21 has elaborated the former, negative side of this dilemma, so 9:6b–29 and 11:1–27 have explained the second, positive side. Verse 28 has Paul summing up the main theme by claiming that the non-believers who made up ethnic Israel were perceived as God’s enemies. In other words, Paul has helped to establish an identity of “all Israel” through his words in verse 28 and his description in verse 26. Does the Bible really endorse slavery (as Sam Harris claims)? Despite failing to exclusively define the notion of the “gift” in this context, there is the likelihood that the usage of the word is meant to provide a summary of the good things and privileges accorded to the nation of Israel as indicated in Romans  9:4–5. It confronts a variety of issues. Hmmm. This, according to Paul, was for the betterment of the Gentiles. Verse 29 The adjective rendered ‘without repentance’ occurs elsewhere in the New Testament, only in 2 Corinthians 7:10. Romans 11:29 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓] Romans 11:29, NIV: "for God's gifts and his call are irrevocable." Romans 11:28 provides a description of “all Israel” that indicates the unbelieving nature of the nation of Israel. The lectionary does us no favors by splitting Romans 11 into an opening question followed by the tail end of an answer. “These people were initially unreceptive of the gospel but through magnificent exhibition of God’s mercy, they were able to be beloved.”[4] While I have never met with Dr. Kinzer, I have no doubt that he dearly love his own Jewish people. on the part of the Giver. In the first clause, Paul reiterates the issue of enmity by writing that the people are enemies for the sake of “you.”  The believing portion of the gentile community is described using the second-person pronoun. First, Paul writes that the nation of Israel are beloved by God “according to election”. Dr. Eitan Bar, a native Jewish-Israeli, born and raised in Tel Aviv, Israel. Paul reveals how he sees things happen in the end when God softens the Jews. The preposition, “The same is used to arrive at a definition of the rule of determining God’s relationship with the Israelites.”. The refusal of the nation of Israel to accept the gospel of the Messiah did not prevent God from honouring the specific promises he had made with the Fathers. Paul’s commentary looked forward to when God would complete the Church, remove it, and restore repentant Israel again to the position of blessing (Matthew 23.37-39; Acts 2.36-38; Romans 11.26). "Slavery is endorsed in the Bible, it's explicitly endorsed in the Old Testament." Biblical Commentary (Bible study) Romans 10:5-15 EXEGESIS: ROMANS 10. Paul’s focus in verse 29 is upon the term “irrevocable”, which is used to describe something or a situation in which it is impossible to revert or go back to. It may not display this or other websites correctly. The refusal of the nation of Israel to accept the gospel of the Messiah did not prevent God from honouring the specific promises he had made with the Fathers. "And in this way all Israel will be saved", Romans 11:22-26 22 Behold then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God's kindness, if you continue in His kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off. Based on the “ethnic Israel” view, the current state of the nation of Israel is that of a hardened one at least as per Romans 11:25. Verse 28 has Paul summing up the main theme by claiming that the non-believers who made up ethnic Israel were perceived as God’s enemies. Romans 11:26 “And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:” This verse and the next are (quoted from Isaiah 59:20-21). Trustworthy resources related to Romans 11. This, according to Paul, was for the betterment of the Gentiles. Paul writes that non-believing Israel are God’s enemies yet that they are also beloved at the same time. 25 But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it. At that time, all of Israel will accept the Messiah en masse. This refers in some sense to spiritual Israel, the Church. What Kinzer is really saying is that Jewish tradition (that includes the rejection of the Messiah) is God’s wish for the Jewish people at this time: “a divinely sanctioned religious tradition appointed for the purpose of preserving the Jewish people”. The nation of Israel are seen as God’s enemies when viewed from the perspective of their rejection of the gospel. Vers.] Key Archaeological Highlights in Israel – 2016. Romans 11:25-36 "Some Gentiles and Israel Will be Saved" is the last of four parts to the BFF Romans 11:11-36 Living Commentary on Romans: Salvations's Great Plan (Romans 11:11-36). The term “beloved” thereby implies that God has not relented but remains faithful in his relationship with the nation of Israel, and still regards them as his chosen people, fully committed to the fulfilment of the covenants made with the fathers. Comforting Questions (Romans 8:31-39) Bob Deffinbaugh: 08/18/2004: 12. Dead traditions cannot give life nor change our heart for the better, only faith in Messiah can. There are four main views regarding the identity of “all Israel” in Romans 11:26. There are four main views regarding the identity of “all Israel” in Romans 11:26. In the present context, “all Israel” still equates to God’s enemies although that rejection has resulted in many Gentiles finding salvation. In 2020 Eitan received his Doctorate (DMin, Middle East Studies) from Dallas Theological Seminary. The meaning of Paul’s statement in 11:26 can be better appreciated by taking a closer look at some of the words used in the surrounding context. This interpretation asserts that the existing hardening of Israel (albeit partial) will continue till the culmination of this age, and that the whole Israelite ethnic nation will ultimately turn to Christ and accept His salvation. A few days ago, in a debate between Atheist Sam Harris and Ben Shapiro, Sam Harris claimed: Romans 8:26 26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. ?” Q. Paul used this … Romans 11:22-26 22 Behold then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God's kindness, if you continue in His kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off. [6] Morris, “The Epistle to the Romans”, p.423 Romans 8:26 Context. 11:27) in which “all Israel” will be saved (Rom. The antithesis to this lies in the words, John 11:25, even though he die [ κἂν ἀποθάνῃ: “though he were dead,” Engl. 1. Paul uses verse 29 to assert and provide support for the argument that God still loves the nation of Israel and still views it as his chosen nation. Repentance, False Religion and the True Way. How could we define the Body of Christ as “God’s enemies”? It seems to be referring to Jacob in verse 26, which then refers back to “all Israel” as evident in verse 26. Does it mean "all elect within physical Israel"? Simply put, from the gospel’s point of view, “they” refers to the ethnic Jews while “you” refers to the Gentiles. This general principle of God’s dealings is the basis of the latter half of Romans 11:28. Paul uses verse 29 to assert and provide support for the argument that God still loves the nation of Israel and still views it as his chosen nation. This contrasting element indicates that by rejecting the gospel, the nation of Israel was put to the side while the gospel was delivered to the Gentiles. Nor should a worship leader expect hearers to be familiar with the … Continue reading "Commentary on Romans 11:1-2a, 29-32" It also has a special reference to the covenant promises that God made to them. 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