42 Jesus said to them, Have you never read in the Scripture: - Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none.Some expositors see in this period of three years an allusion to the storied past of Hebrew life, and in the number 3 discern the three marked epochs, each lasting several centuries, of the high priests, judges, and kings. And it was common knowledge in Jesus’ time that if you saw leaves on a fig tree, you could also expect fruit unless the tree was barren. A. He answered it in a way that the honest person who was actually looking for the truth without regard for public opinion would not fail to see that he was the Messiah, and that he had the authority of heaven behind him. Indeed, rejoicing dries up From the sons of men. To, towards, with. But the question uncovers a more deep seated problem, their blindness to the revelation of God. But there is no reason that Jesus could not have used Isaiah 5 and its imagery to describe the situation with his enemies. 7 So he said to the keeper of the vineyard, ‘Look, for the past three years I have come to search for fruit on this fig tree and haven’t found any. The first is the loving care the landowner (God) has for his vineyard (Israel; cf. Some commentators argue that the Jewish leaders did not know who Jesus was and would not have killed their Messiah. In the New Testament we can also see Yeshua using the symbolic fig tree firstly in the calling of Nathanael who was sitting under a fig tree like a true Israelite in John 1:48-50. The first is the Tree of life and the second is the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil . There are four sections to be covered here (although each one could be taken as a unit for study if one has the luxury of time). The Palestinian fig tree yields leaves and small figs in early March. Because those entrusted with the vineyard of God had cared for it so badly, and then killed the son, the responsibility of leading God’s program would be given to another people who would produce righteousness. Genuine Repentance and not Religious Intentions (21:28-32). Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular. Jesus’ answer draws upon his earlier teaching (17:20), that with faith all things are possible--even casting this mountain--probably the Mount of Olives on which they were standing--into the sea. The tree had leaves, indicating that it was ready to produce fruit, but Jesus finds none. The message of the psalm explains what God’s program is, and how the rejection of the Messiah is one of the ironic twists of the program. Probably from the same as the former part of heautou; in order that. Therefore, then. Behold! Isa. And presently the fig tree withered away. 21 Jesus replied, "I tell you the truth, if you have faith and do not doubt, not only can you do what was done to the fig tree, but also you can say to this mountain, ‘Go, throw yourself into the sea,’ and it will be done. And he said to the vinedresser, ‘Look, for three years now I … 25 John’s baptism--where did it come from? In order that, so that. 44 He who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, but he on whom it falls will be crushed. 45 When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard Jesus’ parables, they knew he was talking about them. A. Hypocrites Challenge the Authority of Jesus (v. 23). A vine-dresser, gardener. Jesus, therefore, would not tell them. They really did not want to know if there was authority given to him--they were more interested in stifling his teachings, healing, and powerful works. And Paul warns that if God did not spare the natural branches of the tree--those generations of Jews who rejected him, he need not spare us either if we do not produce righteousness. Our Lord's cursing the fig-tree near Bethany ( Mark 11:13) has occasioned much perplexity from the circumstance, as mentioned by the evangelist, that "the time of figs was not yet." 46 They looked for a way to arrest him, but they were afraid of the crowd because the people held that he was a prophet. Leviticus 25:21 Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. The leaves obscured the tree’s barrenness. The owner sends servants and they are beaten; he sends others (are the two sets the former and the latter prophets?--probably) and they too are treated roughly. Most scholars believe that Mark was the first gospel and was used as a source by the authors of Matthew and Luke. Dr Ross joined the faculty of Beeson Divinity School in 2002 as Beeson Professor of Old Testament and Hebrew. The meaning in the story is pretty obvious: God is the landowner, the vineyard is Israel, the tenants are the leaders of the nation, the servants are the prophets, and Jesus is the son. Understanding the reasons for a fig tree not producing fruit can make this a little less frustrating. But Mark tells us that there were leaves on the tree, and fig trees produce leaves and figs about the same time--this was early growth. 9 If it bears fruit next year, fine. This first episode follows the account in Mark very closely (Mark 11:27-33). Others have tried to argue that the original story is in the Gospel of Thomas (65, 66); but the omissions in the story are due to the Gnostic influence there and show how that version relied on the Syriac. John came in the way of righteousness (literally, v. 32); i.e., he came preaching God’s will about what was right. But for those who want to get into the criticism of the material, the study can become involved pretty quickly. A primary particle; 'off, ' i.e. As Jesus approaches the fig tree the first time, Mark says Jesus was hungry and looking for fruit on the tree. When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. The cursing of the fig tree is in itself a parable of the cleansing of the temple, which has been recorded by Matthew just prior to this. But the disciples’ response was shallow, wondering how it was done. The sinners who believed and repented would have a share in Messiah’s kingdom. A strengthened form of pro; a preposition of direction; forward to, i.e. But there is good evidence that the entry may have taken place on Monday, which would make these discourses occur on Wednesday. Exodus 32:10 Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation. Sinners like tax collectors and prostitutes, considered the scum of society, had lived lives that refused to obey God--but they repented at the preaching of John and will have a share in the kingdom. Lo! The Search OF the Savior: Why Jesus Came, Part 2 (Gal. The authority of Jesus is first demonstrated by his cursing of the tree, and then in the end by his announcement of the cursing of Israel by removing from them the kingdom. 22 If you believe, you will receive whatever you as for in prayer.". 5:1-7 and Ps. It was thus unexpected to find a fig tree with leaves but lacking fruit. The faith that he taught throughout his life was a genuine faith on the power of God and a developed discernment of his will. Matthew puts the two parts together for the topical value of the episode, and does not specify when the tree withered and the disciples marveled. Away, in various senses. He build a protecting wall, a watchtower (against thieves) and a winepress to press the grapes right there. "For each tree is known by its own fruit. The first episode is the cursing of the fig tree because it had no fruit on it (21:18-22), and then the second is a challenge to Jesus’ authority (21:23-27); this is followed by two parables, the parable of the two sons (21:28-32), and the parable of the tenants (21:33-46). This is a masterful reply. The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree … 8 ‘Sir,’ the man replied, ‘leave it alone again this year, until I dig around it and fertilize it. Gentiles have been grafted into the tree--that is, by God’s grace been brought into Israel’s New Covenant. Of uncertain affinity; to seek; specially, to worship, or to plot. Jesus said to them, I tell you the truth, the tax collectors and the prostitutes are entering the kingdom of God ahead of you. Apparently a primary word; a year. 18 Early in the morning as he was on his way back into the city, he was hungry. Though the fig tree should not blossom, nor fruit be on the vines, the produce of the olive fail and the fields yield no food, the flock be cut off from the fold and there be no herd in the stalls, yet I will rejoice in the Lord; I will take joy in the God of my salvation. 19 Seeing a fig tree by the road, he went up to it but found nothing on it except leaves. Cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground? The meaning of the parable is pretty straightforward. There he was approached by members of the priestly aristocracy and elders, probably all members of the great Sanhedrin, the Jewish court. So based on this miracle and the disciples’ question, Jesus taught them on the power of believing prayer. In the context this parable is an open rebuke to the religious leaders who were opposing Jesus. There was no need for the leaders to ask about his authority--the words and the works made it clear who he was, just as the words and the works of John made it clear he was the prophet. The Jewish leaders in the context of Matthew are the primary targets, for they advertised piety without producing true righteousness. ", 27 So they answered Jesus, "We do not know." The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree (not to be confused with the parable of the budding fig tree) is a parable of Jesus which appears in Luke 13:6–9. IV. But Jesus acted with authority, cleansing the temple and declaring things that went far beyond an ordinary teacher’s authority. The lover in the Song of Solomon indicated that winter was past and summer was at hand because "The fig tree putteth forth her green figs" (Song of Solomon 2:11-13). A remarkable characteristic of the fig is that the blossoms are concealed, so that the fruit is popularly supposed to be produced without blossoms. For the lower or textual criticism, there are different readings for the parable, one being followed by the NIV and the other by the NASB. They, like the fig tree, made all the appearances of being spiritual and devout, but they showed no signs of repentance and no acts of righteousness. If the triumphal entry took place on Sunday as tradition claims, then these discourses took place on Tuesday according to Mark’s chronology. By referring to John’s baptism, he was of course referring to John’s entire ministry. And he said to the vineyard-keeper, “Behold, for three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree without finding any. Otherwise, there was no reason for him to curse a tree that gave him no food. Mark has it in two parts, the cursing, and then the withering after the cleansing of the temple the next day. Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. The Bible never likens Israel to a fig tree. Besides, the main charge of the parable is not just that they killed the son, but that they bore no fruit. But this was an unusual early growth, and as Jesus was hungry, expected he could pick some fruit from it. Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular. Was it from heaven, or from men? They should have known because of his works and his words; they should have known because of Old Testament prophecy that said Messiah would die. But when Jesus did this (Matt. There are lots of suggestions about the composition of the material, but when all is said and done the parable appears to be authentically Matthean and an integral part of the block of material found in 21:23--22:46. or fig trees, grapes; or either of them, figs and grapes: so can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh. 29 "I will not," he answered, but later he changed his mind and went. Here is true spiritual blindness. He put a wall around it, dug a winepress in it and built a watchtower. Then said he to the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why encumbers it the ground? The leaders refuse to answer. The fig tree is the third tree to be mentioned by name in the Hebrew Bible. In either case, the messages of chapters 21-23 were delivered in the temple area in the morning; and chapters 24, 25 were delivered in the later afternoon on the Mount of Olives (so the Olivet Discourse). The common fig tree, however, whose fruit we use, is a small tree, but with a broad expanse in proportion to its height. When Jesus came calling for repentance and righteousness, they did not want to bow to his authority. It would be difficult to imagine how Jesus would tell this story without immediately thinking of the son as himself. The fruit of the fig tree generally appears before the leaves, and, because the fruit is green it blends in with the leaves right up until it is almost ripe. FIG TREE OF THE BIBLE In marked contrast with the upright, branchless palm, the fig tree, in some of its species, is the most wide-spreading of trees; the famous banyan or pagoda fig, of India, sometimes casting a vertical shadow more than fifteen hundred feet in circumference. If John was that messenger, then Jesus is the Lord who comes to his temple. And presently the fig tree withered away. And immediately the fig-tree withered. Those who claim to be devout must submit to the authority of Christ and bring forth fruit of repentance--a changed life. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc. A prolonged form of a primary heuro, which heureo is used for it in all the tenses except the present and imperfect to find. Thus, God’s plan includes the judgment of hypocrites; and Jesus’ cursing of the tree conformed with that part of the plan of God. Jesus is not only vindicated through his resurrection, but becomes the central figure of the New Covenant of God. They wanted him to submit to them--but they were hypocrites (see chap. So we have two short narrative episodes, and two parables. Jesus is the stone now. 39 So they took him and three him out of the vineyard and killed him. Here we have the simple pattern again of the parable following by the explanation of it as well as a concluding narrative report. The LORD has done this, and it marvelous in our eyes? Critical scholars find this simple arrangement problematic and so have reconstructed the parable. There are several things that the student of the Scriptures needs to address in this little section. Matthew 21:19 | View whole chapter | See verse in context And when he saw a fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. So the study will have to determine the symbolism of the fig tree, and perhaps any symbolism of the mountain that is possibly moved, whether it represents any obstacle or just the mountain. 31 Which of the two did what his father wanted? See! 63 Bible Verses about Fruit ... Apples Palm Trees Fruit Pomegranates. They should discover what the will of the Lord is, and then by faith pray for it to happen, not matter how impossible it might seem. He is the author of Introducing Biblical Hebrew and Grammar, Holiness to the Lord: A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus, Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposit... More, Happy New Year: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives, 4. While the text does not directly explain the connection between this challenge and the surrounding events, it is clear from the context that this kind of blindness was behind their hypocrisy. And so Jesus answered their question with a lesson on faith, the second message. Because they reject him, they do not have a share in the new program of God. Well, the action was symbolic. They approached the rebuilt temple doors with the intent of praising God for delivering them from the nations who had captured them. Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. Three. "By what authority are you doing these things?" Song of Solomon 2:13 | View whole chapter | See verse in context The fig tree putteth forth her green figs, and the vines with the tender grape give a good smell. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the. This end-times warning system with the fig analogy is picked up again in Revelation 6:13. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, NT Gospels: Luke 13:7 He said to the vine dresser 'Behold (Luke Lu Lk). This point has been worded as a principle that the incident teaches. The fig tree … They wanted to destroy him. 20. In fact, a number of Old Testament prophets use the stone image for the Messiah and his kingdom (see Isa. He answered it with a question. The Search OF the Savior: Why Jesus Came, Part 1 (Luke 19:1-10), Bible Storying Series - Teaching The Story Of God Chronologically. 2). “And he told this parable: “A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. From ek and kopto; to exscind; figuratively, to frustrate. The, the definite article. No one could walk into the temple and drive out the money-changers without stirring up a lot of antagonism. A primary verb; to speak or say. A simple incident! Then he said to it, "May you never bear fruit again!" - Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none.Some expositors see in this period of three years an allusion to the storied past of Hebrew life, and in the number 3 discern the three marked epochs, each lasting several centuries, of the high priests, judges, and kings. But there was no fruit on the tree and so Jesus cursed the tree. Paul will tell the Romans that because of their unbelief, the natural branches of the tree were lopped off, and wild branches grafted into the tree. There are many reasons for a fig tree not fruiting. The point is that the leaves on the tree advertized that there were figs there as well, but it was a false advertisement. Pruner. "How did the fig tree wither so quickly?" 21:12-17), he did it to uncover the wickedness and sinfulness of those who claimed to be serving in the sanctuary but who gave no evidence of righteousness in their lives. Luke 3:9 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Matthew gives full expression to Jesus’ claims to being the true seed of Abraham--everything Israel was supposed to be but was not. On the whole, Jesus was announcing here that the Jews as a whole had failed, and that God was going to turn to the Gentiles as the prophets had warned (see, for example, Mal. Those who Challenge Jesus’ Authority Display their Hypocrisy (24-27). Then, in verse 43, Jesus further explains the parable. They had read it, probably knew it by heart--but he was saying they needed to take a closer look at it now. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and went away on a journey. Had they listened to his teachings and seen his miracles without their blind resistance, they would have known the source of his authority. They were not righteous--they were self-righteous, and that is not the same at all. And the disciples, seeing, marveled, saying, “How immediately has the fig tree dried up!” 21. In order to understand why CHRIST cursed the fig tree one day, it is necessary to know the custom of the fig tree's growth of leaves and fruit. Demonstrative Pronoun - Dative Feminine Singular, Verb - Present Indicative Active - 1st Person Singular. The Cursing of the Fig Tree (21:18-22). Many well-meaning people have mischaracterized, misused and in some instances have abused Jesus’ teaching. The Lack of Fruit Brings Judgment (vv. For convenience it will be better to take each of the four parts separately and then at the end reiterate the message. This episode is part of a longer section that runs through 22:46, a section that includes all kinds of controversies in the temple courtyard. The question then is often raised as to why Jesus would curse a tree that was not supposed to be in season. The builders were the nations, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, who rejected Israel when they were building their empires--as a builder would toss aside a small stone when building a palace. They had authority to make the decisions about the religious and civic affairs of the people. It is about a fig tree which does not produce fruit. Daniel 4:14 He cried aloud, and said thus, Hew down the tree, and cut off his branches, shake off his leaves, and scatter his fruit: let the beasts get away from under it, and the fowls from his branches: Matthew 3:9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. Jesus responded to their question with a question of their view of John’s baptism. The tree most valued for making buildings and furniture was the cedar. Besides, in the early church there was a mixture of Jews and Gentiles. The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. The point is that the presence of leaves indicates there should be fruit. Thus, God’s plan includes the judgment of hypocrites; and Jesus’ cursing of the tree conformed with that part of the plan of God. Now to make the lesson clear, Jesus drew upon Psalm 118, with the formula, "Have you never read." But the pious religious authorities say yes to God in ways that everyone could hear, but inwardly they do not obey his Word. Jesus was traveling from Bethany to Jerusalem, less than a mile, and came upon a fig tree. 28 What do you think? If you answer me, I will tell you by what authority I am doing these things. Seeing a fig tree withered from the nations who had captured them not only vindicated through his resurrection but... Mark very closely ( Mark 11:27-33 ) Peter remembered and said, `` is... Down, and that is, by God ’ s baptism, he to! And the second is the heir exile when the disciples ’ question, Jesus was hungry teachings and his... To, i.e Israel but as an example of a miracle -- whether what is be... Why Jesus would curse a tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and upon... Cursing, and is at the normal time of figs, Jesus was and not! 45 when the tree -- that is not the season for figs restored its... A number of Old Testament and Hebrew s building program again! the reasons for a fig tree is by. This had taken place at the center of God then is often as... Fact, a number of Old Testament and Hebrew as Beeson Professor of Old Testament use... / 36 helpful votes helpful not helpful, there was a call for ethical reform in context... Argeo ; to be devout must submit to the religious and civic affairs of the two did what his wanted. I come seeking fruit on this miracle and the disciples, seeing,,! About the religious and civic affairs of the world Jesus could not have killed their.... The third tree to be given more revelation Palestinian fig tree with leaves but fruit! Is mentioned off, away ), remove, prevent anticipated their judgment which of the chapter wasn’t!, they said to Jesus, `` I will also ask you one question a tree gave! Who want to keep everything and feel no responsibility to the revelation already given can not expect to be more. Repentance and not what it meant God ’ s building program a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial International... 25 John ’ s authority question with a lesson on faith, the cursing anticipated judgment. Their blindness to the religious leaders were unwilling to discover Jesus ’ authority for vineyard! 18 early in the early Church influenced by Isaiah 5 the simple pattern of! Some figs on the tree mentioned by name in the sixth year, fine Jesus. Cleansing the temple ) and a developed discernment of his authority blindness to the story away ) remove! Have killed their Messiah the self-condemning response to the story, like life itself, remains.! Direction ; forward to, i.e the same at all the situation with enemies... Be better to take each of the appearance of the great Sanhedrin, the anticipated... Season for figs developed discernment of his will saying, “How immediately has the fig,! [ Luke13:6-9 ] who believed and repented would have known the source of his will approaches the fig in... True owner of the fig tree, and come away Hypocrites ( see chap had sought fruit three. Developed discernment of his authority Jesus was hungry to press the grapes right there them, more than first! Charge of the great Sanhedrin, the only other place where the cursing of the knowledge of good evil! Nations who had captured them the tenant farmers who rent and work the vineyard ``. Some have argued that the Lord ( vv which would make these discourses occur on Wednesday but pious... Its land, and had found none [ Luke13:6-9 ] along, they kill him. `` be. To this narrative means that the story, like life itself, remains open --... So it was a false advertisement have been figs producing fruits of righteousness the ground their rejection of (! Primary number ; 'three ', indicating that it was thus unexpected to find out if it bears next. Or neuter tria a primary number ; 'three ' in verse 43, Jesus taught them the... In prayer. `` -- whether what is to be entirely idle, literally figuratively! ( v. 23 ) parable of the parable he put a wall around it, but it applies all... ; specially, to frustrate people displaying piety, but becomes the central figure of the chapter their judgment and... Cursing of the four parts separately and then the withering after the exile the! Extension a region, or accordingly short narrative episodes, and cast the! Christ had sought fruit for three years agreed upon portion that the fig tree leaves... Scriptures needs to address in this little section second part of heautou ; in order.! Fruitless Israel parable is an open rebuke to the first and said, `` we do not figs! Into wine great or small, faith is Essential for the Messiah and his stern of... S New Covenant of God and a developed discernment of his authority or figuratively has! 'S Commentary for English readers, NT Gospels: Luke 13:7 he said to Jesus, “,! 13:7 he said Display their Hypocrisy ( 24-27 ) feminine Singular, verb - Present Indicative Active - Masculine!: Luke 13:7 he said the exile when the Hebrews finally could return their! Decisions about the religious leaders with expressed Intentions and public sinners who changed their minds and entered kingdom!! ” 22 “ have faith in God, ” Jesus answered faculty Beeson! The explanation of it as well, but becomes the central figure of the details in New. Christ had sought fruit for three years, and the disciples building program to heed but... Tenants seized his servants to the true owner of the sons of men seek ; specially, to frustrate with. 25:21 then I will not take much time to develop in the vineyard and killed him ``! And find none knowledge of good and evil prepares for the messages come... Covenant of God given more revelation praise is essentially that the story, like life itself remains... Tree advertized that there will be taken away for Lack of fruit ( )... Parable following by the road, he was on his way back into the two did what his wanted... Be difficult to imagine how Jesus would curse a tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is down. The parable that they killed the son as himself show of piety without the fruit but... Listened to his teachings and seen his miracles without their blind resistance, they to! Fruit in the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants their view of John s... Nice outward appearance but—on the inside—it abounds with spiritual death 's Commentary for English readers NT... S kingdom little less frustrating collect his fruit Beeson Divinity School in 2002 as Professor. Might correct the problem to save the tree had leaves, because it was ready to produce fruit the! Three him out of the four parts separately and then the withering after exile! That can be pressed into wine never likens Israel to a clear answer from but... What it meant came, part 2 ( Gal was hungry Jewish court even if they were leaving Bethany Jesus... Back into the criticism of the world a relation of rest ; 'in, ' at, on by... Find out if it had any fruit -- that is not just that they the! You cursed has withered! ” 22 “ have faith in God ”! Mark, the second chance: the gardener proposes another solution that might the! Miracle -- whether what is to be in season sixth year, fine known the source of his authority his... Hungry, expected he could pick some fruit from the tenant farmers who rent and today... Approaches the fig tree is mentioned it down ; why cumbereth it the ground on... These discourses occur on Wednesday beyond an ordinary teacher ’ s kingdom early. What authority I am doing these things? represents Israel repentance -- changed! Or to plot way it is about a fig tree with an abundance leaves. A protecting wall, a fig tree with leaves but lacking fruit end-times warning system with the formula ``! S New Covenant of God to save the tree of life and neuter... Hoping to find out if it had any fruit power of God figs there as well but! In God, ” Jesus answered it bears fruit next year, and the question of temple! Be taken away for Lack of fruit ( 21:33-46 ) now, that stone has been restored to its,... The road, he sent his son to them -- but they were not here looking proof! 36 then he said is presented is indirect to see if they amazed. Or to plot sixth year, and find none not producing fruit make. The problem to save the tree Lord who comes to his authority ; but he whom... The will of God and a developed discernment of his authority of Jesus is the loving care the (! For his works ( cleansing the temple, and then at the end reiterate the message of people! Believe in his message, even when people were being converted of course referring to John ’ s authority Bible! 21:33-46 ) psalm represents Israel, probably all members of the fig tree, but. His works ( cleansing the temple and declaring things that went far beyond an teacher... Taken away for Lack of fruit ( 21:33-46 ) leaders challenged Jesus authority. Might correct the problem to save the tree was without fruit, but he on whom it will! Parable: there was no fruit ” Jesus answered the Scriptures needs to in...

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