The tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast computed from this model are smaller than the observations (Figs. 5 Tsunami memorial stone: Such as stone monuments, can be found in many areas along the Sanriku coast. Terms and Conditions, 2014) as detailed in the “Tsunami data of the 1896 earthquake.”, Tsunami waveform modeling of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake has shown that slip occurred on a narrow fault located near the trench axis (Tanioka and Satake 1996b; Tanioka and Seno 2001). Konkrete Beispiele für Tsunamis an der Sanriku-Küste sind das Jōgan-Sanriku-Erdbeben 869, das Keichō-Sanriku-Erdbeben 1611, das Meiji-Sanriku-Erdbeben 1896 mit insgesamt 22.000 Toten und einer maximalen Auflaufhöhe von 38 m in Ryōri -Shirahama (heute: Ōfunato, Präfektur Iwate), das Shōwa-Sanriku-Erdbeben 1933 mit 3000 Toten und einer maximalen Auflaufhöhe von 29 m in Ryōri … [7], The unusual disparity between the magnitude of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami may be due to a combination of forces:[7], Scientists believe the effect of subducted sediment beneath the accretionary wedge was responsible for a slow rupture velocity. [4], Seismologists have discovered the tsunami's magnitude (Mt = 8.2)[5] was much greater than expected for the estimated seismic magnitude. The origin time: 19 h 32 m (local time), the epicenter: 144°E, 39.5°N, and magnitude: M = 6.8 were estimated from Japanese seismological data (Utsu 1979). Locations of tide gage stations (open triangles) are also shown. It occurred along the Japan Trench in the northern tsunami source area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake where a delayed tsunami generation has been proposed. Abstract The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was a typical ‘tsunami earthquake’ which caused large tsunami despite its weak ground shaking. Historical Events Today: 1896 – Tsunami strikes Shinto festival on beach at Sanriku Japan On June 15. The slip ratio (2011/1896) is smaller than one in the deeper (3.5–7 km) subfaults except for the southern one (1D), while the ratio ranges 1.9–13 on the shallowest subfaults (Table 1). It killed … 2013b). 2013b), while it was on the deeper subfaults in 1896. These are important issues both in science of tsunami generation in subduction zones, particularly near the trench axis, and also for tsunami hazard assessment. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The injured hundreds more and destroyed approximately 9,000 homes and 8,000 boats. The ground shaking was weak (2–3 on the JMA seismic intensity scale, corresponding to 4–5 on the Modified Mercalli scale; Fig. In order to find a model that explains the tsunami waveforms, we conduct inversion of the 1896 tsunami waveforms recorded at three tide gage stations. The delayed rupture along the northern Japan Trench during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake was estimated by tsunami data (Satake et al. The geometric standard deviation can be considered as an error factor. 2011; Satake et al. Tsunami 1611 are similar in magnitude to the Tsunami 2011 from the corresponding tsunami deposits found in the Sendai Plain, in the south of Sanriku Coast [41]. This Sanriku tsunami served as an impetus for tsunami research in Japan. J Geophys Res 84:1561–1568, Article  The closest profile to the 1896 Sanriku earthquake source (Fig. Correspondence to Seafloor displacement is calculated for a rectangular fault model in an elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). The trench forms part of the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Eurasian plates. In our study area specifically, the 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunami reached up to ~880 m inland and 16 m in … https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2014.09.043, Tsuji Y, Satake K, Ishibe T, Harada T, Nishiyama A, Kusumoto S (2014) Tsunami heights along the Pacific coast of Northern Honshu recorded from the 2011 Tohoku and previous great earthquakes. The tsunami waveform from the 1896 final model shows initial negative wave followed by the positive wave with an amplitude of ~ 3.4 m at around 35 min. In the deepwater, the wave went unnoticed. Zisin (J Seis. Kenji Satake. w = 8.2. Iwate is one of the three prefectures ravaged by the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami. From "The Physics Behind the Wave." A figure much closer to the estimated actual tsunami magnitude. In order to find the best 1896 tsunami source model, we start from the northern part of the 2011 source model, compute the tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast and tsunami waveforms at tide gage stations, and compare them with the 1896 observations. More recently, Lay et al. It resulted in two tsunamis which destroyed about 9,000 homes and caused at least 22,000 deaths The surface wave magnitude M It was immediately after Meiji Tsunami 1896 when Soshin Yamana, an entrepreneur from This Sanriku tsunami served as an impetus for tsunami research in Japan. Cumulative slips on subfaults of the 2011 (red columns) and 1896 (blue) earthquakes. The bathymetry data are sampled from J-EGG500 (mesh data with 500 m interval provided by Japan Oceanographic Data Center) and M-7000 series digital bathymetry chart (provided by Japan Hydrographic Association), but newer coastal topography such as breakwater around tide gage stations are removed to reproduce the situation in 1896. Rep Civil Eng Lab 24:83–136 (in Japanese), Nakajima J, Hasegawa A (2006) Anomalous low-velocity zone and linear alignment of seismicity along it in the subducted Pacific slab beneath Kanto, Japan: reactivation of subducted fracture zone? We also compare the tsunami source models, or obtained slip distributions, of the 1896 and 2011 earthquakes, and discuss why the 2011 earthquake was not a ‘tsunami earthquake.’. It killed more than 20,000 people in Iwate and surrounding areas. He measured tsunami heights based on various kinds of traces and eyewitness accounts, and assigned different reliabilities depending on the kind of data. 2014). All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The sum of subfault slip ranges from 20 to 40 m on shallowest subfaults (rows 0). sanriku japan tsunami 1896 cost. Geophys Res Lett 23:1522–1549, Tanioka Y, Seno T (2001) Sediment effect on tsunami generation of the 1896 Sanriku tsunami earthquake. http://www.dpbolvw.net/click-5028330-10426267 Polet and Kanamori (2000) extended this model to global subduction zones, based on the examination of the source spectra of large (M > 7) earthquakes in the 1990s. (bottom) Tsunami waveforms at three tide gage stations at regional distances. On the subfaults where the 1896 slip was large (1B and 1C), the 2011 slips were 3 and 14 m (Fig. 2e). 35 minutes later, the tsunami was reported at Shirahama that reached as high as 125 feet (38.2 m), causing damage to more than 11,000 homes and killing some 22,000 people. However, the computed tsunami waveforms at regional distances are much larger than the recorded ones, particularly at Hanasaki and Ayukawa (Fig. Tsuji et al. Red and yellow circles show observed heights by Iki (1897) and Matsuo (1933), respectively. Computed tsunamis from the northeastern part of the 2011 tsunami source model roughly reproduced the 1896 tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast, but were much larger than the recorded tsunami waveforms. Geosci. If K is larger than one, the observed heights are larger than the computed ones. Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:415–425, Aida I (1978) Reliability of a tsunami source model derived from fault parameters. 3, Additional file 1: Tables S1, Additional file 2: Table S2). 4). Due to higher levels of tsunami awareness, fewer casualties were recorded following the Sanriku earthquake. J Geophys Res 117:B04311. Pub Earthq Invest Comm 26:1–113, Ide S, Baltay A, Beroza GC (2011) Shallow dynamic overshoot and energetic deep rupture in the 2011 M a Epicenter (black star) and seismic intensity distribution of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, according to Japan Meteorological Agency. Hence the complimentary slips of the 1896 and 2011 earthquakes indicate slip partitioning of these events. 2014), but not recorded on other types (seismographs or high-rate GPS) of data. The ground shaking was felt throughout the Japanese Islands with the maximum seismic intensity of 7 on the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale, or 11–12 on the Modified Mercalli scale (Fig. In Minami-Sanriku town, there are monuments for the 1896 Meiji, the 1933 Showa and the 1960 Chile tsunamis. c Tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast from the 1896 Sanriku tsunami (blue symbols with different shapes for the data source) and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (red symbols with different shapes for runup and inundation heights) from Tsuji et al. It describes as follows. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake (明治三陸地震, Meiji Sanriku Jishin) was one of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. The strike, dip, and slip angles are 193°, 8°, and 81°, respectively. Isl Arc 6:261–266, Tappin DR, Grilli ST, Harris JC, Geller RJ, Masterlark T, Kirby JT, Shi F, Ma G, Thingbaijam KKS, Mai PM (2014) Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami? 6) indicates that both faults are located at the contact zone between deformed area (Vp = 3.2–2.6 km/s) and oceanic crust (Vp = 5.3–5.6 km/s), suggesting similarities of fault zone properties. Hence the relation between the 1896 and 2011 tsunami sources is an important scientific as well as societal issue. The moment magnitude M Bull Seismol Soc Am 103:1473–1492. (2013b). Abe assigned the surface wave magnitude as Ms=7.2. However, the tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast from the 2011 and 1896 earthquakes were roughly similar (Fig. In the present study, the local tsunami amplification observed in Ryori Bay, located on the Sanriku coast of Japan, was investigated using numerical simulations. During a Shinto festival on June 15, 1896, an earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan estimated to be 8.5 magnitude on the Richer Scale, caused about five minutes of slow shaking. The Tesla Tsunami was also observed across the Pacific. They destroyed wharves and swept several houses away.[3][11]. Cite this article. Mar Geol 357:344–361. Blue and green circles with bars are computed heights on 6″ grid. Earth Planets Space 63:815–820. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. In Hawaii, wharves were demolished and several houses were swept away. The damage was particularly severe because the tsunamis coincided with h… Juni 1896. 2b, 3). In the northern part of the 2011 tsunami source, the 15 June 1896 Sanriku earthquake occurred and caused the worst tsunami disaster in Japan, with casualties of ~ 20, 000 (Shuto et al. [2] The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19:32 (local time) on June 15, 1896, approximately 166 kilometres (103 mi) off the coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu. No written records of large tsunamis are available before the 1896 event. The tide gage station at Choshi was located at 35° 44.0′N, 140° 50.4′E, different from the current location. While the tsunami heights on the northern and central Sanriku coasts were similar for the two tsunamis, the tsunami heights on the southern Sanriku coast and the tsunami waveforms at regional distances were smaller for the 1896 earthquake. 2002), hence these may correspond to 250–500 years of slip deficit. “At 19 h 32 m 30 s (local time), a weak shock of earthquake was felt, lasting for about 5 min. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0536-y, Satake K, Fujii Y, Harada T, Namegaya Y (2013b) Time and space distribution of coseismic slip of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as inferred from tsunami waveform data. 1a). In 1933, another devastating tsunami, with maximum height of 29 m and approximately 3000 fatalities, was caused by the 1933 Sanriku earthquake (M We finally extend the large (20 m) slip to the southern subfault (1C) (Fig. Pure Appl Geophys 171:3183–3215. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19:32 (local time) on June 15, 1896, approximately 166 kilometres (103 mi) off the coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu.. The tsunami heights along the northern and central Sanriku coasts from both earthquakes were similar, but the tsunami waveforms at regional distances in Japan were much larger in 2011. The resulting tsunami was 125.3 feet high in some places, a record height until the 11 March 2011 tsunami, which reached 127.6 feet high in the town of Aneyoshi, in Iwate prefecture. The effects of a 20° dipping fault along the top of the subducting plate was found to match both the observed seismic response and tsunami, but required a displacement of 10.4 m.[7] The displacement was reduced to a more reasonable value after the extra uplift caused by the deformation of sediments in the wedge and a shallower fault dip of 10° was considered. [2] Nevertheless, the earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused a huge tsunami that resulted in thousands of deaths across the same region and the nuclear disaster at Fukushima. Shaking from the 1896 event was not widely felt but the tsunami destroyed nearly 9,000 homes and claimed more than 22,000 lives, making this one of the most damaging earthquakes in Japan’s history. Sanriku, Japan The tsunami to hit Sanriku, Japan on June 15th, 1896 was caused by an earthquake of a magnitude 7.6. Computed tsunami heights on 75 m grids for the four different models are shown by colored lines. 2013b). J Sci Coll Imp Univ Tokyo 11:61–195, Polet J, Kanamori H (2000) Shallow subduction zone earthquakes and their tsunamigenic potential. d Tsunami waveforms from the 1896 Sanriku (blue curves) and 2011 Tohoku (red curves) earthquakes recorded at the three tide gage stations, In the northern part of the 2011 tsunami source, the 15 June 1896 Sanriku earthquake occurred and caused the worst tsunami disaster in Japan, with casualties of ~ 20, 000 (Shuto et al. The 1896 Sanriku tsunami earthquake that occurred along the Japan trench was one of the most anomalous earthquakes; the ground shaking was relatively weak, but the following tsunamis were devastating. Pure Appl Geophys 144:455–470, Satake K, Tanioka Y (1999) Sources of tsunami and tsunamigenic earthquakes in subduction zones. We first adopt the northeastern eight subfaults of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami source model (Satake et al. The 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake was highly destructive, generating the most devastating tsunami in Japanese history, destroying about 9,000 homes and causing at least 22,000 deaths. Why was the 1896 event a ‘tsunami earthquake’ while the 2011 earthquake was not? 1611, 1896, 1933, and 2011 tsunamis were particularly large. It should be noted that tsunami height data on the Sanriku coast have not been used in the previous studies of the 1896 earthquake. 3, Additional file 1: Table S1, Additional file 2: Table S2). The non-linear shallow-water equations including advection and bottom friction terms and the equation of continuity on the spherical coordinate system are numerically solved (Satake 1995). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02350.x, Tanioka Y, Satake K (1996a) Tsunami generation by horizontal displacement of ocean bottom. About the digitalization of tsunami traces material -1896 Meiji Sanriku and 1933 Showa Sanriku Tsunami as examples- Tasuku SUZUKI Engineering Disaster Prevention Consultant Co. Ltd., 3 … They reported that sea water started to recede at 18 min, and the maximum tsunami of 4.5 m was observed at 35 min after the earthquake. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19: 32 local The 1994 o Pure Appl Geophys 154:467–483, Satake K, Nishimura Y, Putra PS, Gusman AR, Sunendar H, Fujii Y, Tanioka Y, Latief H, Yulianto E (2013a) Tsunami source of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia earthquake inferred from tsunami field survey and waveform modeling. "On June 15, 1896, nearly 22,000 Japanese lost their lives due to the most devastating tsunami in Japanese history. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-014-0779-x, Unohana M, Ota T (1988) Disaster records of Meiji Sanriku tsunami by Soshin Yamana. It destroyed 170 miles of coastline as many as 10,000 homes. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026773, Okada Y (1985) Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. t was determined as 8.6 from global data (Abe 1979) and 8.2 from Japanese data (Abe 1981). 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake damage and effects in Kamaishi, Iwate (7 F) Media in category "1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. 2c) shows large (20 m) slip on subfault 1B, deeper and second northernmost subfault. Yamana (reproduced by Unohana and Ota 1988) made a post-tsunami survey from July through September of 1896 in all of the 37 villages along the Sanriku coast. Keywords: Paleo-tsunami, Sanriku coast, Japan, Tsunami deposit identification, AD 869 Jogan tsunami, Storm wave, Numerical modeling Introduction The Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) and tsunami that struck on March 11, 2011, generated severe damage along Cookies policy. The slips on surrounding subfaults range 3–7 m, including the shallowest subfaults (0–3.5 km). This indicates that the 2011 northern slip near the trench axis, delayed ~ 3 min of the main slip near the epicenter, occurred on parts where the 1896 slip was not very large. This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H01838. b Epicenter and seismic intensity distribution of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake (明治三陸地震, Meiji Sanriku Jishin) was one of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. In addition, the tsunami arrival times were measured relative to the earthquake. 1a shows that the strong ground shaking was recorded to the south of the epicenter, where large (> 10 m) slip occurred at deeper (> 7 km) subfaults. Japan 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake Location: The epicenter of this earthquake lies just to the west of the Japan Trench , the surface expression of the west-dipping subduction zone that forms part of the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Eurasian plates. The subfaults are placed on the Pacific plate (Nakajima and Hasegawa 2006), and the top depths beneath seafloor are 0 and 3.5 km for shallowest (row 0) and next (row 1) subfaults (Table 1). Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Fujii Y, Satake K, Sakai S, Shinohara M, Kanazawa T (2011) Tsunami source of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy. Magnitude m w was estimated as 8.0–8.2, from a comparison of aftershock activity of the west-dipping subduction zone (! The computed tsunami heights on the northern and Central Sanriku coasts the in. 2 ( 47 ):89–92 ( in Japanese history Satake K, Terada T, Yoshida Y, T! 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