Andalusia also preserves an important industrial patrimony related to various economic activities. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated (see al-Andalus), but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Moorish rule. Many Castilians participated in this and other expeditions that followed, some of them known as the Minor or Andalusian Journeys. The transportation network facilitates territorial coordination, economic development and distribution, and intercity transportation.[147]. The birth rate is sharply down, as is typical in developed economies, although it has lagged behind much of the rest of the world in this respect. As in most regions of Spain, the principal form of popular verse is the romance, although there are also strophes specific to Andalusia, such as the soleá or the soleariya. The North sits up.[162]. The Council of Innovation, Science and Business is the organ of the autonomous government responsible for universities, research, technological development, industry, and energy. There are also popular papers distributed without charge, again typically with local editions that share much of their content. One example of sport and nature tourism is the ski resort at Sierra Nevada National Park. [95], The High Court of Andalusia (Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía) in Granada is subject only to the higher jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Spain. Thus, the Andalusian Health Service (Servicio Andaluz de Salud) currently manages almost all public health resources of the Community, with such exceptions as health resources for prisoners and members of the military, which remain under central administration. Blas Infante considered these to have been the colours most used in regional symbols throughout the region's history. The primary sector produces 8.26 percent of regional GDP, 6.4 percent of its GVA and employs 8.19 percent of the workforce. The Andalusian festivals provide a showcase for popular arts and traditional costume. [27][28], The Andalusian emblem shows the figure of Hercules and two lions between the two pillars of Hercules that tradition situates on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar. They are known for their elegant "dancing" gait. The large carnivores such as the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) are quite threatened, and are limited to the Sierra de Andújar, inside of Sierra Morena, Doñana and Despeñaperros. [29] Its design was overseen by Blas Infante[30] and approved in the Assembly of Ronda (a 1918 gathering of Andalusian nationalists at Ronda). In Cádiz, traditional costumes with rural origins are worn at bullfights and at parties on the large estates. [124], Andalusia has a long tradition of animal husbandry and livestock farming, but it is now restricted mainly to mountain meadows, where there is less pressure from other potential uses. Art. [19], Its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". Chief among these is the Andalusian Autonomous Government (Junta de Andalucía). There is one Andalusian team in the Liga Asobal, Spain's premier handball league: BM Puente Genil, playing in the province of Córdoba. Add to this its area of 87,268 square kilometres (33,694 sq mi) (larger than many European countries), and it can be no surprise that Andalusia has figured prominently in the history of Europe and the Mediterranean. Alternating red and white voussoirs are associated with Umayyad monuments such as the Great Mosque of Damascus and the Dome of the Rock. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 20,500 euros or 68% of the EU27 average in the same year.[114]. This was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. El Plan de Infraestructuras para el transporte sostenible prevé una inversión de 30.000 millones", Abengoa opens the first EU commercial concentrating Solar Power Tower, La central solar de alta temperatura de Andasol 2 ya ha puesto la primera piedra, "Reflexiones acerca de las actuaciones llevadas a cabo en la sede administrativa y accesos del Conjunto Arqueológico de Itálica", "Arquitectura tradicional en el Marquesado del Zenete", "Iconic Cultural Image Heads Selection of Works by Top Spanish Artists", "El costumbrismo en la pintura sevillana del siglo XIX", "Lo decisivo fue la mezcla: y esa mezcla sólo ocurrió en Andalucía. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. New here? The Sevillian historian Antonio Domínguez Ortiz wrote that: one must seek the essence of Andalusia in its geographic reality on the one hand, and on the other in the awareness of its inhabitants. At the beginning of the 21st century, the population structure of Andalusia shows a clear inversion of the population pyramid, with the largest cohorts falling between ages 25 and 50. The Cordillera Subbética is quite discontinuous, offering many passes that facilitate transportation, but the Penibético forms a strong barrier between the Mediterranean coast and the interior. Landscaping—both for common private homes and homes on a more lavish scale—also carries on older traditions, with plants, flowers, and fountains, pools, and streams of water. In a comparison with the Spanish economy, this subsector is virtually the only food that has some weight in the national economy with 16.16%. [67], The mosque's hypostyle plan, consisting of a rectangular prayer hall and an enclosed courtyard, followed a tradition established in the Umayyad and Abbasid mosques of Syria and Iraq while the dramatic articulation of the interior of the prayer hall was unprecedented. "Bases para la Ordenación del Territorio de Andalucía", 1990, p. 126, in Spanish. "[76], Following the Second Rebellion of the Alpujarras in 1568–1571, the Moorish population—that is, unconverted Moriscos—were expelled from Kingdom of Castile (and Aragon). Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. [citation needed] Some of the greatest Renaissance buildings in Andalusia are from the then-kingdom of Jaén: the Jaén Cathedral, designed in part by Andrés de Vandelvira, served as a model for the Cathedral of Malaga and Guadix;[citation needed] the centers of Úbeda and Baeza, dating largely from this era, are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Biogeographically, Andalusia forms part of the Western Mediterranean subregion of the Mediterranean Basin, which falls within the Boreal Kingdom. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not necessarily refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today. The Nationalist rebels bombed and seized the working-class districts of the main Andalusian cities in the first days of the war,[79] and afterwards went on to execute thousands of workers and militants of the leftist parties: in the city of Cordoba 4,000;[80] in the city of Granada 5,000;[81] in the city of Seville 3,028;[82] and in the city of Huelva 2,000 killed and 2,500 disappeared. Mining for precious metals at Minas de Riotinto in Huelva (see Rio Tinto Group) dates back to pre-Roman times; the mines were abandoned in the Middle Ages and rediscovered in 1556. Invest in Andalucía-Spain is an initiative supported by the Andalusian Regional Government to attract foreign direct investment to our region and to assist existing investors to expand in Andalusia. [citation needed]. Hot and cold soups based in olive oil, garlic, bread, tomato and peppers include gazpacho, salmorejo, porra antequerana, ajo caliente, sopa campera, or—using almonds instead of tomato—ajoblanco.[198]. 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